Diaphragm walls are walls built in the underground starting from the surface. Their use evolved from the practice of the early years of last century of adding bentonite slurry to well drilling fluids in order to stabilize uncased drill holes. They are performed by digging a trench, filling it with bentonite mud, placing a reinforcement, and then displacing the slurry by means of the subsequent concrete casting.
The wall can be used as excavation support, foundation element or as containment structure for the flow of underground water. Diaphragm walls are an important part of the underground construction works also because they can be built with a disruption degree that is relatively little.