Contemporary heating stoves

Do you need help making a decision?  Take a look at our buying guides
152 companies | 2,416 products
{{#pushedProductsPlacement4.length}} {{#each pushedProductsPlacement4}}
{{product.defLight}}
{{#if company.requestButtonsVisibility.requestButtonQuestion == "ACTIVE"}}
{{elseif company.requestButtonsVisibility.requestButtonWhereToBuy == "ACTIVE"}}
{{/if}}
{{product.productLabel}}
{{product.model}}

{{#each product.specData:i}} {{name}}: {{value}} {{#i!=(product.specData.length-1)}}
{{/end}} {{/each}}

{{{product.idpText}}}

{{productPushLabel}}
{{#if product.newProduct}}
{{/if}} {{#if product.hasVideo}}
{{/if}}
{{/each}} {{/pushedProductsPlacement4.length}}
{{#pushedProductsPlacement5.length}} {{#each pushedProductsPlacement5}}
{{product.defLight}}
{{#if company.requestButtonsVisibility.requestButtonQuestion == "ACTIVE"}}
{{elseif company.requestButtonsVisibility.requestButtonWhereToBuy == "ACTIVE"}}
{{/if}}
{{product.productLabel}}
{{product.model}}

{{#each product.specData:i}} {{name}}: {{value}} {{#i!=(product.specData.length-1)}}
{{/end}} {{/each}}

{{{product.idpText}}}

{{productPushLabel}}
{{#if product.newProduct}}
{{/if}} {{#if product.hasVideo}}
{{/if}}
{{/each}} {{/pushedProductsPlacement5.length}}
gas heating stove / wood / metal / contemporary
gas heating stove
SLIMFOCUS MURAL

Heat output: 4.5 kW

To respond to the demand for a Slimfocus that could be connected to a smoke flue on an outdoor wall, Focus developed a wall version of this model. The wall Slimfocus unites the elegance and clarity of a high-relief sculpture with exceptional ...

See the other products
Focus
gas heating stove / wood / central / metal
gas heating stove
BOAFOCUS

HIGH-PERFORMANCE STOVE Draw me a fireplace … ‘In The Little Prince by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, the airman draws the boy a boa that has swallowed an elephant. This illustration really struck me when I was a child, and ...

See the other products
Focus
gas heating stove / wood / steel / glass
gas heating stove
GRAPPUS

Grappus is more than a wood stove: it is a composition that rhythmically structures space, giving the fire the high note. The height of the hearth, counterbalanced by the offset wood rack, makes the stove ...

See the other products
Focus
pellet heating stove / steel / cast iron / contemporary
pellet heating stove
TECLA

Heat output: 6.3 kW

... ventilation in the stove, ensuring maximum silence and all of the advantages of heat diffused throughout the room by natural convection. Intelligent combustion management with Maestro technology and double Wi-Fi included. This ...

See the other products
MCZ
pellet heating stove / corner / stone / contemporary
pellet heating stove
BERG

Heat output: 8.1 kW

... to about one week of stove operation without emptying (average power consumption, 8 hours/day operation). Total silence, when you want The No-Air function allows you to completely exclude the forced ventilation ...

See the other products
MCZ
pellet heating stove / metal / contemporary / RT 2012
pellet heating stove
PHILO 14

Heat output: 13.8 kW

Shallow ductable pellet stove (39,6 cm deep) and 14 kW of power, particularly suitable for small spaces. Philo has been for years among the top seller pellet stoves. Now it has been redesigned according ...

See the other products
MCZ
electric heating stove / metal / contemporary / 0 - 5 kW
electric heating stove
L-FIRE IN CASTING

Heat output: 2.5 kW - 4.4 kW

... responds to the issue by introducing a new revolutionary fireplace – the L-Fire. This unusual product is an eco-friendly fire stove in an ageless front-open casing. It does not produce any smoke or soot, making it a replacement ...

wood heating stove / 3-sided / steel / contemporary
wood heating stove
FINALINE : RÜEGG CELTIS

ELEGANCE IN BLACK STEEL The new Celtis combines the benefi ts of a wood-burning stove with the visual and technical advantages of a classic fi replace. Made in Switzerland, the exquisitely crafted casing is simple and ...

wood heating stove / steel / contemporary / 5 kW...10 kW
wood heating stove
FINA LINE: CASSIA

wood heating stove / 3-sided / steel / contemporary
wood heating stove
TILIA

Heat output: 8.2 kW

Tilia combines the advantages of a stove with the visual and technical advantages of the classic fireplace. The cladding, which is manufactured in Switzerland, comes in a trendy industrial style and is made of powder-coated ...

wood heating stove / central / steel / natural stone
wood heating stove
SENSO CLASSIC NATURSTEIN KAMINOFEN

Our stoves combine stylish and timeless design with innovative technology. Regardless of whether you wish to have a water-bearing, classic or altogether extravagant stove. Factors governing the alignment ...

See the other products
Spartherm - The Fire Company
wood heating stove / 3-sided / metal / contemporary
wood heating stove
ARTEMIS

... home-comfortand well-being: the ancient fire within your modern livingspace. We may live incredibly diverse lives nowadays, andthis diversity is reflected in the different ways we maychoose to situate modern ...

See the other products
Spartherm - The Fire Company
wood heating stove / corner / metal / contemporary
wood heating stove
PIKO

Heat output: 5,900 W

Properties Efficiency>80 % Door frame height572 mm Door frame width345/345 mm Total height1436 mm Total width406 mm Total depth406 mm Flue pipe diameter150 mm Door functionhinged Weight175 kg

See the other products
Spartherm - The Fire Company
wood heating stove / steel / contemporary / 0 - 5 kW
wood heating stove
BOBBY

Heat output: 3,000 W

... middle: 879 mm Heat output • nominal heat efficiency according to EN 13240: 3kW • min. / max. output: - / 3 kW • room heating capacity (depending on house insulation): 22 - 58 m3 Features • Xtra heat storing ...

See the other products
AUSTROFLAMM
wood heating stove / 3-sided / steel / contemporary
wood heating stove
IVY

Heat output: 2,500 W - 7,000 W

... mm heat output Min. / Max. output: 2,5 / 7,0 kW nominal heat efficiency according to EN 13240: 5 kW min. / max. room heating capacity: 48 - 124 features warming compartment: - design 1: o1 floor plate / fire ...

See the other products
AUSTROFLAMM
wood heating stove / steel / contemporary / 0 - 5 kW
wood heating stove
LUX

Heat output: 2,500 W - 7,000 W

... mm heat output Min. / Max. output: 2,5 / 7,0 kW ominal heat efficiency according to EN 13240: 5 kW min. / max. room heating capacity: 48 – 124 m³ features warming compartment: - design 1: o1 floor plate / ...

See the other products
AUSTROFLAMM
wood heating stove / multi-fuel / steel / cast iron
wood heating stove
ARC 7

Heat output: 7 kW

The Charnwood Arc is a revolutionary new multi-fuel stove. It simplifies the process of burning wood and smokeless fuels setting the bench mark for a new generation of modern, clean burning stoves. Engineered ...

See the other products
CHARNWOOD
wood heating stove / cast iron / contemporary / 7 kW
wood heating stove
SKYE 7

Heat output: 7 kW

... minimal with a soft modern edge. Whilst the Skye 7 is very easy to operate (one simple push/pull control) the ground breaking technology behind the cast iron casing ensures the user gets the very best efficiency from ...

See the other products
CHARNWOOD
wood heating stove / multi-fuel / steel / cast iron
wood heating stove
SKYE 5

Heat output: 5 kW

An exceptionally clean wood burning and multi-fuel stove, British made on the Isle of Wight. The Charnwood Skye 5 is a new state-of-the-art stove with a remarkably efficient combustion system. It’s ...

See the other products
CHARNWOOD
wood heating stove / metal / contemporary / round
wood heating stove
30

Heat output: 5,000 W - 12,000 W

... TIME. The Stûv 30 is the very first wood-burning stove to offer three modes of use. Although now in its third generation, it is still revolutionary with its 3-in-1 system: open fire, glass door, or solid ...

See the other products
Stûv
wood heating stove / metal / contemporary / wall-mounted
wood heating stove
30-UP

Heat output: 5,000 W - 9,000 W

A hanging stove, ideal for small rooms or low-energy houses with - of course - three functions. Can also be connected to the outside air.

See the other products
Stûv
wood heating stove / metal / contemporary / 12 kW
wood heating stove
30-H

Heat output: 5,000 W - 12,000 W

The Stûv 30-H can be fitted with an accumulator core which stores some of the heat. Once the fire has gone out, the accumulated heat is released over several hours, thus prolonging the sensation of heat and comfort.

See the other products
Stûv
pellet heating stove / steel / cast iron / glass
pellet heating stove
ECOFIRE® DENISE

Heat output: 7,350 W

• this space-saving stove has a particularly shallow depth and can be installed with its back flush against the wall; • steel structure available with various claddings; • mirrored glass “feature” door that allows the ...

See the other products
PALAZZETTI LELIO
pellet heating stove / metal / contemporary / 5 kW...10 kW
pellet heating stove
ECOFIRE VIOLETTA

Heat output: 7,350 W

• this space-saving stove has a particularly shallow depth and can be installed with its back flush against the wall; • side 4-key display; • front air outlet. A ducting kit can be fitted to divide and convey the air ...

See the other products
PALAZZETTI LELIO
pellet heating stove / corner / steel / cast iron
pellet heating stove
ECOFIRE ELDORA

Heat output: 9,090, 7,000 W

... temperature; • the stove can be connected to an outdoor thermostat; • combustion air ducted from outdoors; • 400 m3/h tangential fan adjustable to various speeds; • designed for a rear or side flue gas outlet; also ...

See the other products
PALAZZETTI LELIO
pellet heating stove / earthenware / contemporary / ventilated
pellet heating stove
PRESTIGE : P943

Heat output: 4 kW - 12 kW

Pellet stove fully cladded in Majolica, in the following colours: Bianco Meringa, Bordeaux, Terra Oriente, Verde Mirto, Canapa or Blu Verdemare. Cylindrical-shaped door with flush curved glass. A revolutionary high-performance ...

See the other products
Piazzetta
pellet heating stove / earthenware / contemporary / round
pellet heating stove
PRESTIGE : P943 M

Heat output: 4 kW - 12 kW

Pellet stove fully cladded in Majolica in Bianco, Grigio Cerato, Rosso Lava, Nero Opaco, Kaki and Terra Cotta. Cylindrical-shaped door with flush curved glass. A revolutionary high-performance combustion chamber heats ...

See the other products
Piazzetta
pellet heating stove / earthenware / contemporary / 4 kW
pellet heating stove
PRESTIGE : P980

Heat output: 4 kW - 12 kW

Pellet stove, fully cladded in Majolica in the following colours: Bianco, Nero Opaco, Rosso Lava and Terra Cotta. The wide frameless glass panel offers a really clear view of the fire and an exclusive design. A revolutionary ...

See the other products
Piazzetta
wood heating stove / metal / contemporary / 7 kW
wood heating stove
EMERAUDE 1

Heat output: 7 kW

Smoke outlet : Ø 15 cm Weight : 105 kg Size logs : 33 cm In compliance with : EN13240 Size : L 47 x P 37,5 x H 90 cm

See the other products
SEGUIN
wood heating stove / metal / contemporary / 7 kW
wood heating stove
700 IHS

Heat output: 7 kW

Smoke outlet : Ø 18 cm Weight : 150 kg Size logs : 50 cm Double combustion : Yes Size : L 70 x P 45 x H 93,8 cm

See the other products
SEGUIN
wood heating stove / steel / contemporary / 7 kW
wood heating stove
BLOC HORIZONTAL

Heat output: 7 kW

Nominal output : 7 kW CO Rate : 0,10% Particles emission (mg/Nm3) : 30 mg/Nm3 Efficiency : 75,4%

See the other products
SEGUIN
gas heating stove / metal / contemporary / 0 - 5 kW
gas heating stove
KOZA/AB/S/G/G20/20MBAR

The gas stove Koza AB is distinguished by a modern line and innovative technical solutions that provide high thermal efficiency and comfort of operation. The device has two panes. The outer - with a decorative ...

See the other products
KRATKI.PL MAREK BAL
gas heating stove / steel / contemporary / 0 - 5 kW
gas heating stove
KOZA/AB/S/G/G31/30MBAR

Heat output: 4.5 kW

The gas stove Koza AB is distinguished by a modern line and innovative technical solutions that provide high thermal efficiency and comfort of operation. The device has two panes. The outer - with a decorative ...

See the other products
KRATKI.PL MAREK BAL
wood heating stove / steel / cast iron / contemporary
wood heating stove
KOZA/AB

... printed glass: No ASDP - automatic control of the air supply: No Turbine TURBOFAN: No Water panel: No Stove AB with cylindrical, modern design is a great solution for people who long for warmth, ...

See the other products
KRATKI.PL MAREK BAL
pellet heating stove / steel / cast iron / original design
pellet heating stove
OVE PLUG-IN AUTO by Bernard Dequet

An innovation in the realm of pellet stoves, the Ove Plug-IN auto has it all: great looks, quiet operation and unparalleled ease of use. Load your granules into the hopper, program it, then sit back and enjoy the warmth ...

See the other products
INVICTA
pellet heating stove / steel / cast iron / contemporary
pellet heating stove
ALTARA PLUG-IN AUTO by Bernard Dequet

Heat output: 7 kW

... part of a new generation of pellet stoves, brings style and thermal comfort to your home. With its wall module concealing a 22 kg reservoir, you can enjoy the good looks and natural warmth of the Altara cast iron stove ...

See the other products
INVICTA
pellet heating stove / steel / contemporary / ventilated
pellet heating stove
BASSANO 5

Small and compact, Bassano is the pellet stove for small spaces and small budgets. Enjoy the best quality/price ratio on the market! Features POWER 4.2 kW HEAT VOLUME 120 m³ HEATING SURFACE 48 ...

See the other products
INVICTA
pellet heating stove / steel / contemporary / ventilated
pellet heating stove
ECO 60H - PIEDINI IN LEGNO

Heat output: 4.4 kW

See the other products
FAIR srl
pellet heating stove / steel / contemporary / ventilated
pellet heating stove
ECO 60H - PIEDINI METALLIZZATI

Heat output: 4.4 kW

See the other products
FAIR srl
pellet heating stove / steel / contemporary / ventilated
pellet heating stove
ECO 60H - PIEDINI IN TINTA

Heat output: 4.4 kW

See the other products
FAIR srl
wood heating stove / central / steel / contemporary
wood heating stove
NEXO 185

... or a storage module for even better energy efficiency? Choose what’s best for you! The fire glass panels on every NEXO stove have been developed in accordance with the ambitious principles of our ADVANCED GLASS CONCEPT©. ...

See the other products
Attika Feuer AG
wood heating stove / central / metal / contemporary
wood heating stove
PILAR

... ample space for logs measuring up to 33 cm in length and ensure an impressive play of flames. Standing 190 cm in height, the stove will be a truly eye-catching feature in your home. It is not only elegance and size that ...

See the other products
Attika Feuer AG
gas heating stove / 3-sided / steel / contemporary
gas heating stove
NEXO

Heat output: 5.7 kW

... fires. This gas stove can be easily switched on and off with the user-friendly remote control or optional MyFire app. It has various adjustable flame levels and many functions that can be used independently of one another. ...

See the other products
Attika Feuer AG
wood heating stove / central / steel / contemporary
wood heating stove
NEXO 185

... or a storage module for even better energy efficiency? Choose what’s best for you! The fire glass panels on every NEXO stove have been developed in accordance with the ambitious principles of our ADVANCED GLASS CONCEPT©. ...

See the other products
attika | RAIS
wood heating stove / central / metal / contemporary
wood heating stove
PILAR

... ample space for logs measuring up to 33 cm in length and ensure an impressive play of flames. Standing 190 cm in height, the stove will be a truly eye-catching feature in your home. It is not only elegance and size that ...

See the other products
attika | RAIS
gas heating stove / 3-sided / steel / contemporary
gas heating stove
NEXO

Heat output: 5.7 kW

... fires. This gas stove can be easily switched on and off with the user-friendly remote control or optional MyFire app. It has various adjustable flame levels and many functions that can be used independently of one another. ...

See the other products
attika | RAIS
gas heating stove / 3-sided / steel / contemporary
gas heating stove
PASSO ECO WAVE

Heat output: 0.9 kW - 6.4 kW

This cool free-standing gas fire catches the eye thanks to its large round glass window. The flame patterns can be regulated by means of the integrated Eco Wave technology. The glowing effect at the bottom of the gas fire and high-stacked ...

See the other products
DRU
gas heating stove / metal / contemporary / 5 kW...10 kW
gas heating stove
DRU OPÉRA DVS2

Heat output: 7,300 W

The slightly curved front of the Opéra conceals the refined DRU technique that guarantees you maximum output. The visible coal fire heightens the ambience. The Opéra comes in many colours, meaning the right combination can be found for ...

See the other products
DRU
gas heating stove / metal / contemporary / 0 - 5 kW
gas heating stove
DRU CIRCO

Heat output: 3,500 W - 7,000 W

The Circo is a freestanding DRU gas stove with a unique curved glass pane. Its design creates an optimum fire experience from several corners of your living room. The circular design also means the Circo is eminently ...

See the other products
DRU
wood heating stove / cast iron / sheet steel / contemporary
wood heating stove
BOMBAY-F

Heat output: 9 kW

Features •Double Combustion System •Clean Glass System •Low Emissions System •Heating power: 9kw •Efficiency (%): 78% •Consumption (kg/h): 2,5kg/h •Heating capacity (m3): 225m3 •Vermiculite inside •Manufactured ...

See the other products
Bronpi Calefacción, S.L.
wood heating stove / 3-sided / cast iron / sheet steel
wood heating stove
BOMBAY 3C

Heat output: 7 kW

Features •Double Combustion System •Clean Glass System •Low Emissions System •Heating power: 7kw •Efficiency (%): 79% •Consumption (kg/h): 2kg/h •Heating capacity (m3): 175m3 •Vermiculite inside •Manufactured ...

See the other products
Bronpi Calefacción, S.L.
wood heating stove / corner / cast iron / sheet steel
wood heating stove
BOMBAY-E

Heat output: 7 kW

Features Double Combustion System Clean Glass System Low Emissions System Heating power: 7kw Efficiency (%): 79% Consumption (kg/h): 2kg/h Heating capacity (m3): 175m3 Vermiculite inside Manufactured ...

See the other products
Bronpi Calefacción, S.L.
wood heating stove / double-sided / steel / contemporary
wood heating stove
DIAMANTINE 100 DOBLE FRENTE BLACKERAM

Elegance and Simplicity Robustness and defined our Diamantine. Fireplace in modern design, with exterior cladding carbon steel 8mm. Interior in Blackeram Total power: 12 Kw. Performance 76 % Air inlets: primary ...

wood heating stove / central / steel / contemporary
wood heating stove
DIAMANTINE 70 BLACKERAM

Elegance and Simplicity Robustness and defined our Diamantine. Fireplace in modern design, with exterior cladding carbon steel 10mm. Interior in Blackeram Total power: 9 Kw. Performance 80 % Air inlets: primary ...

wood heating stove / steel / contemporary / 9 kW
wood heating stove
DIAMANTINE 70 VERMICULITA

Elegance and Simplicity Robustness and defined our Diamantine. Fireplace in modern design, with exterior cladding carbon steel 10mm. Interior in Vermiculite high density 900 Kg. M3 Total power: 7 Kw. Performance 79 % Air ...

pellet heating stove / multi-fuel / metal / contemporary
pellet heating stove
LYON

Heat output: 7,500 W

Power: 7,5 kW Performance: 91 % Hopper: 12 kg Autonomy: 19-7 h Consumption: 600-1600 g/h Weight: 78 kg Gas out diameter: 80 mm Includes : Automatic modulation of combustion air, supply of pellets and convection air Ecoforest ...

See the other products
ECOFOREST
pellet heating stove / metal / contemporary / 5 kW...10 kW
pellet heating stove
BASIC

Heat output: 5.5 kW

Power: 5,5 kW Performance: 88 % Hopper: 11 kg Autonomy: 23-9 h Consumption: 478-1196 g/h Weight: 61 kg Gas out diameter: 80 mm -Automatic modulation of combustion air, supply of pellets and convection air -Ecoforest exclusive ...

See the other products
ECOFOREST
pellet heating stove / metal / contemporary / 7 kW
pellet heating stove
MOON

Heat output: 7 kW

The MOON model has the same specifications of Ecoforest top of the range stoves, ideal for passive houses and buildings in the countrifield. This pellet stove is Airtight Power: 7 kW Performance: ...

See the other products
ECOFOREST
wood heating stove / cast iron / contemporary / double-combustion
wood heating stove
BIARRITZ

Heat output: 8 kW

See the other products
Lacunza
wood heating stove / cast iron / contemporary / double-combustion
wood heating stove
BIDART

Heat output: 8 kW

BIDART cast iron stove with vermiculite interior, superior smoke outlet, double combustion, optional smelting hearth, double combustion control, screen-printed glass, greater fire vision and an unmatched LACUNZA seal design

See the other products
Lacunza
wood heating stove / cast iron / contemporary / 12 kW
wood heating stove
TARBES

Tarbes stove in cast iron, outdoor air intake, interior in vermiculite, combustion control with a single control, curved glass, fire seen from any angle, upper or rear smoke outlet, double combustion, optional cast ...

See the other products
Lacunza
electric heating stove / 3-sided / aluminum / contemporary
electric heating stove
PRISM

... Heat output: 1.000 / 2.000 watts (2 heating steps) With thermostat (stepless) Width combustion chamber: 43 cm Flame size steplessly regulatable (dimmer) 4 modes - on/off, only flames/glowing, heating ...

See the other products
muenkel design
electric heating stove / aluminum / contemporary / 0 - 5 kW
electric heating stove
BERGAMO SIMPLICO

 Information on electrical use ( various selectable ) •Opti- myst Flame Effect ( Info ) •Optional: Heating capacity: 1,000 / 2,000 watts (2 heat settings) oHeating with thermostat (stepless) •Wide firebox: 40 ...

See the other products
muenkel design
bioethanol heating stove / 3-sided / metal / contemporary
bioethanol heating stove
EMPIRE

See the other products
muenkel design
electric heating stove / metal / contemporary
electric heating stove
SPLAN 23 SERIES

electric heating stove / metal / contemporary
electric heating stove
SPLAN 24 SERIES

wood heating stove / cast iron / brass / ceramic
wood heating stove
MARLENE

Heat output: 13,500, 5,700 W

... support of a wall. Marlene stoves come in a wide range of models: from “Mini” to “Maxi”, from double-sided to stove-and-oven solutions, to satisfy our clients’ every need and desire.

See the other products
Sergio Leoni
pellet heating stove / cast iron / brass / ceramic
pellet heating stove
MARIA SOFIA

Heat output: 8,100, 2,300 W

Ventilated pellet stove. Classic contemporary style is born, in which elegant classical shapes by Sergio Leoni are expressed in a more simple way. For application in more contemporary ...

See the other products
Sergio Leoni
pellet heating stove / steel / cast iron / brass
pellet heating stove
MARLENE TONDA

Heat output: 8,100, 2,300 W

Marlene Tonda fits in Marlene stoves collection with a modern, minimal and feminine rounded shape. It is a forced ventilation pellet stove, with door and top in black painted steel and a very natural ...

See the other products
Sergio Leoni
electric heating stove / stainless steel / contemporary / for sauna
electric heating stove
VEGA

Heat output: 4,500, 6,000, 8,000 W

... and simple stove use. The stainless steel gives your sauna a modern look. Orders are placed ergonomically, above, on the side of the stove for easy use. Vega is easy to mount on a separate ...

See the other products
POOLSTAR
electric heating stove / stainless steel / contemporary / for sauna
electric heating stove
VEGA COMPACT

Heat output: 3,500 W

... on the upper part of the stove. Vega Compact can be mounted very low on the sauna wall so as to provide enough heat for the lower benches. Vega Compact is easy to install. Simply install the base to the wall, lifting ...

See the other products
POOLSTAR
electric heating stove / corner / stainless steel / stone
electric heating stove
DELTA

Heat output: 3,600 W

Harvia Delta is a powerful stove for a small sauna. This is a compact and efficient heater with a large stone space. The stainless steel stove gives a modern look to your sauna. Triangular ...

See the other products
POOLSTAR

How to choose this product

contemporary-heating-stove

A contemporary stove is a heating appliance with straight, simple lines and sober finish. Grays dominate, but the addition of primary color accents can provide a contrast to room decor.

How to choose

Choice will depend on installation location, including wall, built-in, central or corner. Each influences spatial perception of the room in a different way. Constituent materials and fuel type both affect the stove's efficiency. It can use wood, wood pellets, gas, bioethanol, oil, electricity or a combination of energy sources. The most common finish materials are ceramic, steatite, marble and aluminum.